Foreground: A good example of axisymmetric buckling at the base of a tank. This kind of buckling is called “elephant’s foot” buckling. Loading is axial compression from the overturning moment generated during horizontal ground motion combined with circumferential tension from the fluid pressure inside the tank.
Background: This tank buckled non-axisymmetrically because of a different combination of prebuckling loads. For example, perhaps at the time of the earthquake that tank had less wine in it than the tank in the foreground. Therefore, there would be less prebuckling hoop tension, making an “elephant foot” buckle formation less likely. (Photograph by J. Skogh).
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