This figure is discussed in Fig. 7 of the PowerPoint presentation for the AIAA 38th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, AIAA Paper 97-1142.
Shown here is the effect of initial face sheet waviness, w0: Under axial compression the amplification of w0 gives rise to the possibility of local core crushing, local core tensile failure, local face sheet pull-off, local core shear failure, and additional bending stresses in a face sheet as the initial face sheet waviness w0 is amplified by the compressive loading in a face sheet. L=the critical buckling (wrinkling) half-wave length.
Typical initial wrinkling amplitude, w0, is given by w0/L=0.001 (Plantema).
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