This and the next six slides show shells the behavior of which is very sensitive to initial imperfections.
This slide shows typical buckling behavior of a very thin monocoque (unstiffened) cylindrical shell under uniform axial compression (end shortening). The behavior of this type of shell is extremely sensitive to initial imperfections, as demonstrated in the next slide.
(In this photograph the post-buckling pattern is “artificially” stabilized because there is a solid mandrel inside the shell.)
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