From the PowerPoint presentation of the 1997 sandwich paper.
Shown here is the effect of initial face sheet waviness amplitude, w0: Under axial compression the amplification of w0 gives rise to the possibility of core crushing, core tensile failure, face sheet pull-off, core shear failure, and additional bending stresses in a face sheet as the initial face sheet waviness w0 is amplified by the compressive loading in a face sheet.
L=the critical buckling (wrinkling) half-wave length. Typical initial wrinkling amplitude, w0, is given by w0/L=0.001 (Plantema). This initial waviness is amplified by axial compression.
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