This and the next image are from:
J. Zhang, Z. Liang, C.J. Han and H. Zhang (School of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, China),
“Numerical simulation of buckling behavior of the buried steel pipeline under reverse fault displacement”, Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 6, pp 203-210, 2015, doi:10.5194/ms-6-203-2015
ABSTRACT: Reverse fault movement is one of the threats for the structural integrity of buried oil-gas pipelines caused by earthquakes. Buckling behavior of the buried pipeline was investigated by finite element method. Effects of fault displacement, internal pressure, diameter-thick ratio, buried depth and friction coefficient on buckling behavior of the buried steel pipeline were discussed. The results show that internal pressure is the most important factor that affecting the pipeline buckling pattern. Buckling mode of non-pressure pipeline is collapse under reverse fault. Wrinkles appear on buried pressure pipeline when the internal pressure is more than 0.4Pmax. Four buckling locations appear on the buried pressure pipeline under bigger fault displacement. There is only one wrinkle on the three locations of the pipeline in the rising formation, but more wrinkles on the fourth location. Number of the wrinkle ridges and length of the wavy buckling increase with the increasing of friction coefficient. Number of buckling location decreases gradually with the decreasing of diameter-thick ratio. A protective device of buried pipeline was designed for preventing pipeline damage crossing fault area for its simple structure and convenient installation. Those results can be used to safety evaluation, maintenance and protection of buried pipelines crossing fault area.
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