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Different types of early post-bifurcation buckling behavior

In this slide LAMBDA is the load; LAMBDAc is the bifurcation buckling load of the perfect structure; wb is the buckling modal displacement.

(a) behavior of an axially compressed column (for example)

(b) behavior of certain frames analyzed by Roorda or of structures with "contact" behavior (for example)

(c) behavior of the thin web of a beam in bending or a spherical shell with an inward-directed concentrated load (for example)

(d) behavior of an axially compressed thin cylindrical shell or externally pressurized thin spherical shell (for example)

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