This is Fig. 6 from the paper. "Bifurcation buckling of shells of revolution including large deflections, plasticity and creep" by David Bushnell, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 10, pp. 1287-1305, 1974.
This slide shows buckling modes predicted by BOSOR5 with the use of three different models of the same 45-degree cone-cylinder: the elastic-plastic shell that buckles under uniform external pressure shown in the previous two slides.
The material in the immediate neighborhood of the cone-cylinder junction is stressed above its proportional limit at the buckling pressure. p is the buckling pressure and n is the number of waves around the circumference of the shell in the critical buckling mode, that is, the buckling mode that corresponds to the lowest eigenvalue (buckling load factor).
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