This and the next 4 images are from:
Bushnell D. Buckling of shells—pitfall for designers. AIAA Journal 1981;19(9): 1183–1226.
This slide shows loading, prebuckling beam-type bending, and buckling of the payload shroud as modeled for BOSOR4/BIGBOSOR4.
(a) Nonuniform dynamic pressure distribution measured in a wind tunnel test of the payload shroud.
(b) prebuckling deformation. Only the leeward meridian is shown as the payload shroud bends like a cantilevered beam loaded mostly near its free end.
(c) The meridional profile of the buckling mode. This non-axisymmetric buckling mode has 13 circumferential waves according to BOSOR4.
Buckling does not occur near the base of the shroud where the bending moment is greatest because the thicknesses of the skin and corrugation is greatest there. Instead, buckling occurs in a region neaer the midlength of the shroud where the wall thicknesses have been stepped down.
Shown here is a BOSOR4/BIGBSOSOR4 model of the segmented payload shroud.
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