Laying an oil pipeline at sea off the stern of a ship. Buckling of the pipe can occur at the circumferential site of maximum axial compression where the pipe bends over the stern of the ship and also at the bottom of the sea where the pipe bends in the opposite direction as it encounters the sea bed. At the bend on the sea bed the loading is circumferentially varying axial compression from bending of the pipe combined with uniform hoop compression from the external hydrostatic pressure of the sea.
Kyriakides has studied the dynamic propagation of collapse of long pipes under external pressure.
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