This page contains galleries containing images created by many practitioners in the field of shell buckling.

Unstiffened Cylindrical Shells
Shown are many images of axially compressed monocoque cylindrical shells, including buckling and static and dynamic post-buckling from both test and theory. The dramatic influence of initial imperfections for uniformly axially compressed cylindrical shells is demonstrated. Buckling of composite laminated cylindrical shells, buckling of cylindrical shells with holes, and buckling of cylindrical panels are included, as well as buckling of internally pressurized cylindrical shells and buckling of cylindrical shells subjected to combined axial compression and external pressure. Examples are given of buckling of cylindrical tanks during earthquakes, wind loading, because of blocked vents, buckling of locally axially compressed cylindrical shells, dynamic buckling under axial impact, buckling of cylindrical shells with cracks and very large deformation buckling of submerged cylindrical shells under blast loading including fluid-structure interaction. Also included are several images of buckling of long cylindrical shells (tubes), buckling of pipelines, buckling of blood vessels because of internal viscous fluid flow and buckling of silos caused by granular flow.
Stiffened Cylindrical Shells and Panels
Results are shown for shells with rings, shells with stringers and shells with both rings and stringers. There is a section on the buckling of cylindrical shells with isogrid stiffening, This is followed by many images that feature very large stiffened cylindrical shells designed and tested at NASA over many years. Results are then displayed for laminated composite stiffened cylindrical panels and shells optimized by PANDA2. The presentation also covers load-deflection behavior and mode jumping of cylindrical shells, curved panels and flat panels loaded well beyond initial buckling of the skin between stiffeners and fluid-structure buckling of a submerged stiffened shell subjected to a local blast . Elastic-plastic buckling of typical stiffened metal plating used in the construction of ships is demonstrated, including the effects of residual deformations, residual stresses and local material weakening from welding during the assembly of fabricated structures.
Shapes other than Cylindrical
Featured are very large shells tested and analyzed by NASA, internally and externally pressurized torispherical and ellipsoidal pressure vessel heads, buckling of stacked barreled cylindrical shells, buckling of “football” shaped shells, buckling of spherical shells under uniform external pressure and concentrated loading, and buckling of hyperboloid shells of the type associated with nuclear power plants. Buckling of a reticulated dome, buckling during explosive forming of a pressure-vessel head, wrinkling of a multilayered doubly curved surface and buckling of a doubly curved nanoparticle are demonstrated.
Structures with a Combination of Shapes
Shown in this presentation are configurations of shell structures that consist of multiple shell segments of different shapes. The presentation includes local buckling at a bolted joint in a multi-segment, stiffened payload shroud, buckling of the region surrounding a separation joint between stages of a rocket booster, buckling and vibration of rocket fuel tanks supported by struts or skirts, vibration of a cryogenic cooler that consists of many segments, buckling of multi-segment storage silos, buckling of a buried shell structure, elastic-plastic buckling of an externally pressurized torispherical pressure vessel head with an attached nozzle, buckling of roofed tanks under external pressure, buckling under horizontal earthquake motion of variable thickness roofed tanks, buckling of a large wind turbine blade, large deformation of curved “double tape measure type” hinges during deployment and folding of long rods with intermittent hinges, very large deformations of axially compressed assemblages of energy absorbing shell structures used to improve the crashworthiness of vehicles and fluid-structure dynamic response of a ship to a nearby submerged blast.
Thin-Walled Beam Columns
This presentation includes images that demonstrate various types of general and local buckling of beams and columns with various thin-walled cross section that buckle in a way analogous to the buckling of thin-walled shells.
Prismatic Shells and Panels
This presentation includes buckling of axially compressed square tubes, buckling of a cruciform column, buckling of oval cylindrical shells, buckling of a cylindrical “balloon” with a complex double wall, buckling of uniformly and complexly corrugated cylindrical panels and shells, and general and local buckling of cold-formed rods with cross sections consisting of multiple thin segments.
This presentation includes buckling images of a single-walled carbon nanotube, buckling of a group of nanotubes loaded axially by a spherical indenter, buckling of short and long nanotubes under axial compression and bending, buckling of bundles of nanotubes and buckling of nanotubes supported by elastic foundations.
Buckling, Folding, Wrinkling and Creasing of Soft Shells and Membranes
This presentation starts with wrinkling of membranes and continues with many examples of buckling of microscopic spherical capsules subject to various environments. Folding, buckling and wrinkling of films on compliant substrates are then displayed. The presentation continues with descriptions of various kinds of wrinkling, folding, and creasing of soft structures, wrinkling of the icy surface of one of Saturn’s moons, the development of whorls on one’s fingers, the development of folds in the fetal brain, and the development of folds in growing fruits of plants and in seashells. The presentation concludes with examples of delamination of a film from a substrate, the application of shell theory to cellular deformations, and surface-tension-induced buckling of liquid-lined elastic tubes, a model for pulmonary airway closure.
Sandwich Shells
This presentation describes various failure modes of sandwich shells and panels. Buckling of truss-core sandwich walls under in-plane axial compression is included, as well as static and dynamic buckling and crushing under pressure normal to the face sheet surface of sandwich structures with various types of cores.
Architecture that Involves Shells as Major Components
This presentation displays famous cathedrals built with use of the principle of the arch and dome, followed by images of modern concrete shell structures, followed by large existing and proposed glass shell structures, followed by examples of small and large reticulated shell structures. The presentation continues with examples of “spaceplate” shells proposed by architect Anne Romme, a huge cylindrical “Yoshimura” art piece, and a collapsible configuration proposed by architect Matt Storus of a mobile museum with a wall shaped like a deeply developed Yoshimura pattern. The presentation concludes with several images relating to the collapse of three of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City resulting from the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, followed by several images relating to the partial collapse of Terminal 2E at the Charles de Gaulle International Airport in Paris on May 23, 2004.
Other Topics
This presentation is a kind of “catch-all” assemblage of images that do not fit particularly well into the other presentations. The presentation begins with charts having to do with the buckling and post-buckling of columns, plates and shells that are neutral, stable and unstable in their post-buckling regimes. The presentation continues with several images from a 1970 report on nonlinear pre-buckling, bifurcation, and post-bifurcation behavior of centrally loaded arches. The “arch” series is followed by several examples of the statics and dynamics involving very large deformations of “one-dimensional” structures (rods), such as the entanglement of strands of spaghetti, the formation of loose knots, the snap-back buckling of an elastic band, the whipping of helical flagella of a bacterium that enables it to swim, the thermal buckling of railroad tracks, the failure of the Tacoma Narrows bridge due to flutter of its deck in a strong wind, and the “squirm” buckling of an axially compressed spring. These “one-dimensional” examples are followed by several “two-dimensional” examples: local buckling and post-buckling of segments of axially compressed columns with open cross sections, shear buckling and post-buckling of the web of an I-beam in bending, axial crushing of prismatic structures such as a cruciform column and a square tube, and buckling of the hull of a container ship in a rough sea. Next a few images are provided that involve buckling of cylindrical shells and an example of a compound shell structure made of composite material, which is an image that includes a notice about the Third International Conference on Buckling of Composite Shells held at the Technical University of Braunschweig in March 2015. The next image shows several examples of two-dimensional assemblages of straight and curved members that buckle into three-dimensional configurations, and the following image shows buckling and post-buckling of a three-dimensional sphere-like structure. The presentation concludes with images involving laminated walls, delamination buckling, examples of functionally graded shell walls, and various models that involve extremely large deflections and deformations of models of assemblages of shell structures that interact with each other.